Education is the essential component for an individual in the society. Education opens the ways of thinking of the learner to adapt the changing needs of the society. It is believed that the economic growth can be achieved by the improvement by high rates of education. Social justice, human rights can be well understood by effective communications. Human, social and economic development can be achieved from the education. Most countries consists education as one of the important pillar of public policy.
Definition of Education
The word education is defined from two words “educate” and “institution”. Wikipedia defines “Education is the process of facilitating learning. Knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits of a group of people are transferred to other people, through storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, or research”. Oxford defines as “the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university”.
History of education
Education has been the medium of transfer of knowledge from the person who has gained experience in the domain to the young people. Education was transferred from one generation to another generated to retain the knowledge. In the pre literate society, imitation was the medium of communication for transfer of experience followed by story-telling. Years after years the informal way of communication gave a shape to the formal education. Groups were created based on the age and society groups. Formal education lead in a structured environment where students came together to gain knowledge from teacher. Schools were created to organize the education system. Further universities were created to organize the education system and also develop the existing curriculum for the students and make improvements for future meeting the demands of the society.
Global education scenario
The growth of the country depends on the implementation of complete education to the children and youths. A study found that an increase in the number of the literacy leads to the decrease in the poverty. So a global initiative has been taken by the International bodies for complete eradication of illiteracy. UNESCO joined hands with the governments across the globe for working towards development of education.
European countries leads the data in terms of students attending primary and secondary schools for education
followed by the North & South America, South Pacific, Middle East and most of Asian population. The number seems to go down for African and some parts of Asian kids where the percentage is less than 50% of the schooling age. Poverty seemed to be the driving factor for the decline in the percentages of education.Nearly one third of the kids attend primary school which goes down for secondary education. Lack of education facilities leads to the poor participation of kids in education.
Categories of education based on age groups
· Based on the age group, schooling was divided into sub groups considering factors like grasp of knowledge by the children.
· Preschools provide education to the students in the age group between 3- 5 years unfolding the child’s adaption to the nature through intellectual mode of communication.
· Primary education is provided to the students up to the age group of 12 years focusing on the behavioural development of the children which helps in the academic progress for higher education.
· Secondary education is provided to the age group of teens. The objective of this level is to gain knowledge from the subjects and understand the application in the real world.
· Higher Secondary education is more diverted towards specialized course based on the interest of the students.
· Vocational education is focused on practical training of the student based on the elected specialization.
The economy of the African continent is growing at 5% annually. Africa consists of 1.07 billion people. African continent consists of 54 different population. There are 130 million children whose age is below 6 years. United Nations has estimated that the population of the continent will double by 2050. In countries like Niger, Chad and Uganda half of the population is under 16.
Education scenario in Africa
Children enrolment in the primary schools has reached to 144 million in the African continent which rose by 75% from 1999. The adult illiteracy rate has fallen by 50% from the last decade. There are equal number of boys and girls which are enrolled in the school. There are still 30 million primary age population who are not attending school because of many difficulties. Nigeria which is considered as one of the densely populated country in Africa contributes 8.7 million children who are not attending school. Burundi is the leading country for children attending the primary education. Lesotho is the country which consists of least number of children going to primary school for education. There is been an increase in the number of children attending school in Africa over the decade, but it has reach a long distance to make the dream possible for complete literacy in the region.
Africa has the lowest enrolment for secondary education. Rising enrolment in the primary education have added pressure to government for secondary education. Only 28% of children are enrolled in the country. The gender gap widens with the increase of the education level. 23% of African girls enrol for secondary education. Low transition rate from primary to secondary schooling which is affecting the education system because of increase in the fees and lack of training for specific subjects.
HIgher secondary and vocational education
Students with adequate income group opt for higher education due to high cost of education. Youths prefer to go abroad and gain higher education because of the exposure. There are limited colleges and universities provided limited knowledge on the subjects. Lack of availability of trained professors have led to the decline of students enrolling for higher education in the country.
Education for girls
The number of girls decreases with the increase in the education level. Young girls are moved from the primary school to look at farms, collect water, cook for the family or care for their siblings. Girls are more likely to drop out from the primary education which is 59% in Ethiopia and 58% in Ethiopia. There are countries like Niger, Chad and Mali where there are highest number of child’s marriage at an early age. Poverty also adds to the decline of girl’s participation for education. The culture of girl’s illiteracy is passing from one generation to another. According to a survey conducted on parents for their children founded that 48% of them only wanted their boys to go to school and 28% for girls. 57% of school drop by girls was early pregnancy in Uganda.
Reasons for poor education system
· Lack of proper facilities for children- The infrastructure for schooling is not conducive for proper environment for education.
· Lack of basic facilities to the teachers- One of the important factor for lack of teachers in the school because of low pay in the schools in the rural areas due to which teachers move to cities or overseas for higher pay.
· Teachers have to face lot of difficulties in getting basic facilities.
· Corruption in the education system- Illegal collection of fees from the parents is one of the factor for corruption.
· Poor subject structure- The subjects taught in the schools consists lack of information to adapt to the needs of the society.
· Lack of investment in the education sector- The government of most of the African countries are failing to allocate budget for investment in the education segment.
· Conflicts- Countries in the continent with conflicts due to which the social society is affected.
· Emigration- One of the important factors which every country in the region is facing is the emigration of the qualified people from the country.
Improvement of education in the continent
· The government should finance with the education industry.
· Better infrastructure and facilities should be provided at each schools for better environment.
· Encouragement of more girls attending higher education.
· Compulsory implementation of foreign languages in the syllabus.
· Introduction of technology in the classroom for reducing the cost of teaching.
· Providing basic needs such as books, clothes and one time meal to the students for the motivation.
· Making universities for proper management of education in the specified region.
· Accessibility of schools to the students living in the remote locations.
· Abolition of corruption in the schools and colleges providing secondary and higher education.
· Awareness programs to educate the need of education to the illiterate people across the region.
· Retention of scholars and academicians in the country for development in the country.
· Teacher training program should be implemented for improvement in teaching.
· Tie ups with NGO which works in the development of the education.